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How Much Energy Do LLMs Consume? Unveiling the Power Behind AI

Exploring the energy consumption of LLMs at different stages of applications
energy consumption

In the age of artificial intelligence, Large Language Models (LLMs) like GPT-series, Mistral series, Llama series and others have become the powerhouses driving natural language processing. But as these digital marvels grow in complexity and capability, a crucial question emerges: how much energy do LLMs consume? This article would help to unfold the hidden energy costs of training and inference these sophisticated AI models, exploring their environmental impact and the tech industry’s efforts to balance innovation with sustainability. 

Table of Content

  1. The rise of LLM and why energy consumption matters
  2. Factors Influencing LLM Energy Consumption
  3. The energy footprint of LLMs
  4. Implications and Future Directions

Let’s start by understanding the reason for emphasizing energy consumption.

The rise of LLM and why energy consumption matters

Large Language Models (LLMs) have revolutionized the field of artificial intelligence, enabling machines to understand and generate human-like text with unprecedented accuracy. These models, such as GPT-series, Llama series, and others, are trained on vast amounts of data and leverage complex neural network architectures to perform a wide range of tasks, from translation to content generation.

Historical Perspective

The journey of LLMs began with simpler models like Word2Vec and GloVe, which paved the way for more sophisticated architectures such as Transformer-based models. Over time, the size of these models has grown exponentially, from millions to billions of parameters. For instance, OpenAI’s GPT-3 boasts 175 billion parameters, a testament to the rapid advancements in this domain.

Importance of Energy Consumption

As LLMs have grown in size and capability, so too has their energy consumption. The training of these massive models requires extensive computational resources, often involving hundreds or thousands of GPUs or TPUs running for weeks or months. This high energy demand has significant implications:

  • Environmental Impact: The carbon footprint associated with training LLMs is substantial. Data centres, where these models are trained, consume large amounts of electricity, much of which is still generated from non-renewable sources. This contributes to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change.
  • Economic Cost: The financial cost of the energy consumed during the training of LLMs can be enormous. Companies and research institutions must invest heavily in both the hardware and the energy required to train these models, impacting their overall budgets and influencing decisions on the development and deployment of new models.
  • Sustainability: As AI continues to integrate into various sectors, the sustainability of these technologies becomes a critical consideration. Efficient energy use not only helps in reducing costs but also aligns with global efforts to minimize environmental impact.

Factors Influencing LLM Energy Consumption

Model Size

The size of an LLM, typically measured in the number of parameters, is a primary factor influencing its energy consumption. Larger models require more computational power both for training and inference. For example, training GPT-3, which has 175 billion parameters, consumed an estimated 1,287 MWh (megawatt-hours) of electricity, which is roughly equivalent to the energy consumption of an average American household over 120 years. In contrast, smaller models like GPT-2, with 1.5 billion parameters, consumed significantly less energy during training.

Computational Resources

The type of hardware used for training and running LLMs significantly impacts energy consumption. High-performance GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) and TPUs (Tensor Processing Units) are commonly used for these tasks due to their ability to handle large-scale parallel computations. For instance, NVIDIA’s A100 GPUs, used in many modern AI training setups, have a maximum power consumption of around 400 watts each. Training a large model across 1,000 A100 GPUs could consume up to 400 kilowatts per hour. Newer generations of these hardware components, such as the NVIDIA H100, offer improved performance per watt, thereby reducing energy consumption compared to older models.

Training Hours

The duration of the training process is another critical factor. Training large models can take weeks or even months, during which the hardware operates continuously, consuming energy. For example, training BERT (Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers) on a large dataset took approximately 64 TPU days, translating to significant energy use. In contrast, smaller models or models trained on smaller datasets might only require a few days or even hours, greatly reducing energy consumption.


The infrastructure supporting LLM training, including data centres, also plays a vital role in determining energy consumption. For example, Google’s data centres, known for their energy efficiency, use advanced cooling technologies and have a Power Usage Effectiveness (PUE) ratio of 1.12, meaning only 12% of the energy is used for cooling and overhead, while the rest is used for computation. In contrast, less efficient data centres might have a PUE of 2.0 or higher, meaning half of the energy consumed goes to non-computational overhead.

Hyperparameter Tuning

Hyperparameter tuning, the process of optimizing the model parameters to achieve the best performance, can also contribute to energy consumption. This process often involves running multiple training iterations with different settings. For instance, tuning a BERT model could involve dozens of trials, each requiring significant computational resources. Automated hyperparameter optimization tools, such as Google Vizier, can help reduce the number of required trials, thereby saving energy.

Algorithmic Efficiency

The efficiency of the algorithms used in training and inference affects energy consumption as well. More efficient algorithms can achieve similar or better performance with less computational power, thus reducing the overall energy requirements. For example, researchers have developed techniques like sparse attention in Transformer models, which reduces the amount of computation required and, consequently, the energy consumption.

Data Preprocessing

The preparation and preprocessing of data for training also consume energy. Large datasets need to be cleaned, filtered, and transformed, which requires computational resources. For example, the Common Crawl dataset used to train models like GPT-3 consists of petabytes of data that must be processed before training. Although this preprocessing phase is less energy-intensive than training itself, it still adds to the overall energy footprint.

Energy footprint of LLMs

The energy consumption of LLMs varies across different stages, including training, evaluation, and inference. The following table provides an overview of the estimated energy consumption for models of varying sizes:

Deploying a 7B Model for 1 Million Users

Let’s consider the scenario of deploying a 7B model, which is relatively smaller compared to giants like GPT-3. To understand the total energy consumption, we need to sum up the energy used in training, evaluation, and inference.

Training Energy Consumption: The initial training phase consumes approximately 50 MWh of energy.

Evaluation Energy Consumption: The evaluation phase, where the model is fine-tuned and validated, requires about 5 MWh.

Inference Energy Consumption: Assuming each of the 1 million users generates one query, the inference energy consumption would be 0.1 MWh.

Combining these values, the total energy consumption can be calculated as follows:

Total Energy Consumption = Training Energy + Evaluation Energy + Inference Energy

Total Energy Consumption = 50 MWh + 5 MWh + 0.1 MWh = 55.1 MWh

Implications and Future Directions

The calculated energy consumption for deploying a 7B model to serve 1 million users amounts to approximately 55.1 MWh. This highlights the substantial energy requirements associated with LLMs, even for models that are not at the top end of the spectrum. As AI technology continues to evolve, it becomes imperative to focus on optimizing both the training and inference processes to reduce the energy footprint.

Researchers and companies are exploring several strategies to mitigate energy consumption, including:

  • Algorithmic Optimization: Improving the efficiency of training algorithms can significantly reduce the computational load.
  • Hardware Advancements: Utilizing more energy-efficient hardware like AI accelerators can lower energy usage.
  • Model Pruning and Distillation: Reducing models’ size through techniques like pruning and distillation can help maintain performance while cutting energy costs.
  • Renewable Energy: Leveraging renewable energy sources to power data centres can further enhance the sustainability of AI operations.


Understanding and addressing the energy consumption of large language models is crucial for the sustainable development of AI technologies. As the demand for AI continues to grow, ongoing efforts in research and development will play a pivotal role in shaping a sustainable future for artificial intelligence.


  1. Cost Reduction Methodology
  2. Towards Optimizing the Costs of LLM Usage (White paper)
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Sourabh Mehta

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