Classification of Quasars, Galaxies, and Stars Using Multi-Modal Deep Learning

Author(s): Sabeesh Ethiraj, Bharath Kumar Bolla

Abstract

The universe is the vast expanse of cosmic space consisting of billions of galaxies. Galaxies are made of billions of stars that revolve around a gravitation center of the black hole. Quasars are quasi-stellar object which emits electromagnetic radiation more potent than the luminosities of the galaxies combined. In this paper, the fourth version, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-4), Data Release 16 dataset, was used to classify the SDSS dataset into galaxies, stars, and quasars using machine learning and deep learning architectures. We efficiently utilize both image and metadata in tabular format to build a novel multi-modal architecture and achieve state-of-the- art results. For the tabular data, we compared classical machine learning algorithms (Logistic Regression, Random Forest, Decision Trees, Adaboost, LightGBM, etc.) with artificial neural networks. Deep learning architecture such as Resnet50, VGG16, EfficientNetB2, Xception, and Densenet121 have been used for images. Our works shed new light on multi-modal deep learning with their ability to handle imbalanced class datasets. The multi-modal architecture further resulted in higher metrics (accuracy, precision, recall, F1 score) than models using only images or tabular data.

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